|After twenty odd years of genealogical researching I have a fairly detailed Sandercock family tree dating back into the earlier 1600's in Cornwall & Devon, England. As well I have traced many Sandercock family lines from various locations around the world back to Cornwall & Devon from where their ancestors had migrated, but then the records dry up and the trail grows cold. I still have most of my research materials and would be happy to share. Below is a shortened version of the Sandercock Family Tree I have on file. Please feel free to contact me at: email@example.com|
Many a boy was orphaned for what ever reason and, if lucky, was taken in by another family. It seems reasonable the boy would be treated as a menber of that family and assumed the family name. NPE, or Non-Parental Event, is common in the genealogical field and goes along way to explaining a Y-DNA breaking in a family's male line.
Assuming that my research is close to right, it's difficult to say which of the four or so generations before Jacob took up the Sandercock surname. The Sandercock surname is of quite early origin. I know the Sandercock name in its many variations appears in southern England approximately 1,300 AD ( 720 years ago ), or earlier. I know for sure there were Sandercocks in the Devon Lay Subsidies of 1332 AD. I know by the early to mid 1500's AD the Sandercock name had spread across southern England in counties like Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent and the London Borough of Lambeth, as well as larger concentrations in Devon & Cornwall.
Other examples in the records include one in the county of Kent in England, in the year 1425, where a John and William Sandircok were mentioned in a document. Others include: Thomas Sandcrofte which was dated 1 January 1546, who was a witness at Fressingfield, Suffolk, during the reign of King Henry VIII; Jone Sandcroft who married Thomas Burgis at St Peters Church, Norwich on 1 December 1553; Robert Sandecocke at Addington Church, Addington, Kent on 3 May 1601; Gilbert Sandercroft, who married Elizabeth Utting at St Giles, Norwich, on 23 September 1753. My family tree reveals a Jacob Saundercocke from about 1625 in the Tremaine/Warbstow area of Cornwall who married Dorothy Briand in Lezant, Cornwall on 3 September 1661.
Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as a Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to 'develop' often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
The derivation in the Sandercock name is from the personal name ALEXANDER - a Greek name meaning 'helper of men'. lt was a very popular male name and one of the few not derived from Saints' names. ln the Middle Ages the name Alexander appeared in England in its French form ALISANDRE. As early as 1248, the pet-name SANDRE was formed out of Alisandre, and from this pet-name came SANDER. The suffix 'cock', like 'kin', was sometimes added to a personal name to distinguish a son from his father. Sandercock, then, literally means 'little Sander' in an affectionate sense. Names using this construction (others are Sincock and Hancock) were in common use among the lower classes, or among those who were too poor for assessment in the early Subsidy Rolls of England. The fact that distinguishing surnames were being used, however, presumably meant that such people had begun to rise in the social scale.
Up to the nineteenth century, it was common to spell Sandercock with an added 'u'. This is born out in a document Z16/2/15/23 dated 26 March 1731 in the reign of King George 1st reveals more about my oldest known ancestor Robert Saundercock(1682-1734) of Tremaine, Cornwall, the shoemaker who is recorded in my family tree. While the surname is widespread over southern England, records indicate the surname was more common in the top half of Cornwall.
While our Sandercock tree is completed as far as old paper records permit, there are several other Sandercock trees in Cornwall/Devon that have hit a brick wall when researching their upper end. There is no creditable evidence to link them to our line. Are they the same Sandercock line as ours or did they come by the surname in some other way: adoption, living on the same farm, recorded accidentally? We may never know the answer to that question without the aid of Genetic Testing (DNA) by Sandercock males.
|sandercock Sandercocke Sandercok Sandercoke Sanndercock Sanedercock Sandercox Sandercoock Saundercock Sandrecock Sanderock Saundercocke Sindercock Sandracock Sandercook Sandercot Sandercom Sandercoek Sondercock Sundercock Sundercocke Sandercomb Sandercott Sandercome Saundercoke Saunderkock Sanderoke Sandercoe Sandecock Sanderback Sanderbeck Sandrycock Sendercom Saunderycock Sandercombe Sandercouch Sendercomb Sanderseck Sandersca Sander Sanderb Sandercort Sanderos Sanders Sandier Sendercombe Saynder Sannder Sandere Sanderken Sandder Sainder Sandcock Sanderby Sanderbrink Sandcocke Sainders Sandders Sandears Sandeers Sandeirs Sandermo Sanderes Sanderon Sanderof Sannders Saunderscock Saynders Seander Skander Sandiere Sandiers Sandower Sanderrs Sanderso Sandersone Sanderwick Sendercocks|
David Postles records in his book, "The Surnames of Devon" page 173, "The surname Saundercock (alias Sondercok) appeared in the court rolls of Werrington during the later middle ages, the diminutive form suggesting its origin in a personal name". His source for this is Devon Record Office Bedford MSS Werrington court rolls.
On the same page he says that the name Saundercok appears in both the Devon Lay Subsidies of 1332 and 1524/25. Postles believed that the origins of the surname most probably came from the personal name Alexander, usually written in Devon as Alesaundre. The more remote possibility is that Saunder (and hence Sandercock) was derived from the occupation of putting sand on arable land to improve its fertility. But he comments that ''sanding the arable was probably not a full-time occupation, more a by-employment, the occupational surname may have been quite rare'.
The second reference comes on p.218 where Postles notes a Thomas Sondercok, a servant who appeared in the Werrington court rolls in 1365. Werrington is just north of Launceston; it was part of Devon and is now part of Cornwall.
Bernard Deacon, head of Cornish Studies at Exeter University, said that, by Cornish standards, this is a very old name.
The appearances of the first Sandercocks in Cornwall (as Cornwall was at the time) can be estimated from old documents.
No Sandercocks were recorded in Cornwall in the Military Survey of 1522 (Muster Rolls) which recorded all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60 capable of fighting. Unless a Sandercock over the age of 60 lived in Cornwall, it is logical to assume that the family still lived in the Werrington area then part of Devon.
No coat of arms has ever been granted to a person bearing the name of Sandercock in England.
Before 1525 a Sandercock family had moved west to Cornwall, as recorded in the Cornwall Manorial Rentals and Surveys of 1525. In this document it is possible to see that John Sawnedercocke and his wife, Joan, along with their son, William, rented Wadfest Manor, Whitstone, about five or six miles to the north-east of Tremaine, from the Marchioness of Dorset. This comprised of 108.5 acres of arable, pasture and moor and 120 acres of woodland.
Also at Wadfest was Thomas Saundercocke, who held 14 acres of land and John Saundercocke who held two small closes. It seems very likely that Thomas and John were sons of William of Wadfest.
No Sandercocks were recorded in the Tremaine/Warbstow area in the Cornwall Subsidies in the reign of Henry VIII, 1525, but by 1543, a William Saundercock had moved to Warbstow; he owned goods to the value of 2 pounds. It is likely that William was the son of one of the Sandercocks at Wadfest.
In 1570 the population of the whole of Cornwall was only 57,000.
It seems reasonable to think that John,a groom, who died at Warbstow in 1579 was William's son. Assuming John died about 50 - 60 years of age, he would have been born about 1520 - 1530. This John married a woman called Jane and they had five children who were mentioned in his will of 1579; John, the eldest, Thomas, William, Tamsin and Mary. It may be noted that the male names are the same as those at Wadfest.
The inventory of the will of William Sandercock of Treneglos, husbandman, dated 1602/3, is sadly all that remains and this does not name beneficiaries. It does seem probable however, that this William was the son of John who died in 1579 as a William was mentioned in John's will. Stephen and John Grigg were mentioned as executors; they may have been brother-in-laws, one a son-in-law or possibly just friends. From this information, it cannot be ascertained if William had any children, or indeed, if he ever married. ('Warbstow consolidated with Treneglos, and included in the same presentation' from History of Cornwall Vol. 2)
In 1611, John of Warbstow, husbandman died. It is likely that he was the eldest son of John whose will was probate in 1579 and a brother to William of Treneglos above. The will was signed by Thomas Sandercock who may well have been the third brother mentioned in John's will of 1579. The bounden, John Sandercock, was probably this John's son. John appears to be married, perhaps to Elizabeth, but the writing is not clear. Several other people were named but none were Sandercocks.
In 1626 Cornwall experienced a severe winter, famine and plague that spread westward and in 1627 famine was compounded by a wheat failure. Plague continued to devastate the whole country in 1631 and until the late 1650s winters in Cornwall were severe and harvests often poor.
In 1642 the English Civil War began and last for almost nine years, ending in 1651. Cornwall was a Royalist enclave and gentry and peasants fought on behalf of King Charles I. This was a terrible time for Cornwall and many of its inhabitants must have died.
The above seem valid reasons for the disappearance of several male Sandercocks in the Tremaine/Warbstow area during that time. It is also probable that some family members moved to neighbouring villages; e.g. Sandercocks were first recorded in Jacobstow in 1625.
There is a gap in records from 1611 to the will of Steven Sandercock of Warbstow in 1662. Unfortunately it is not possible to connect Stephen to the former family members. In his will Stephen mentions his wife, Agnes, sons John, Degory, Richard, daughters, Barbara, Rebecca, Martha and grandson, Steven, son of John
By 1667 the Great Plague had spread as far as West Cornwall.
Richard, son of Stephen above, married a woman called Tamsin. They baptised a son, Stephen at Warbstow on 20th January 1687. Stephen probably married Lovedy Brown on 14th February 1725 at Warbstow.
Samuel married Jane Hue on 3rd November 1696 at Warbstow. Samuel and Jane Sandercock baptised two children at Treneglos; Elizabeth on 19th September 1697 and John on 6th November 1699. It is not possible to say where Samuel fits into the family tree.
It is very likely that Steven, Richard and Jacob, our first definite ancestor, were related, perhaps cousins or possibly brothers. (Children who received gifts of land or money from their parents during their lifetime were not usually mentioned in their will.)
Jacob, the Latin form of James, which would probably have been the name he was known by, would have been born after 1625 in the Tremaine/Warbstow area. He may have been named after King James I of England and VI of Scotland who died in 1625 as it was quite common for children to be named after a monarch. (Jacob had to have been under the age of 16 in 1641, see Protestations below) The names of his parents are not known.
In the Cornwall subsidies of 1543 in the reign of Henry VIII, a William Saundercock was mentioned at Warbstow as having 2 pounds of goods. He, and another Sandercock family at Whitstone, were the only Sandercocks recorded as living in Cornwall. It seems logical, therefore, to assume that Jacob had descended from William of Warbstow and that, in all probability, William had moved to Warbstow from Whitstone, as there were Sandercocks there in the 1525 Cornwall Subsidies and nowhere else in Cornwall.
It is just possible that Jacob's father was called Stephen. In 1641, the English Parliament passed on act requiring that all men above the age of sixteen years be required to swear an oath of allegiance to King Charles I and the established church.
For Devon and Cornwall, this 'protestation' read as follows:
Jacob's young life would have been lived through turbulent times. From 1642 to 1646, Britain was in a state of Civil War. Cornwall was mainly a Royalist county and for a while the Cornish militia under Sir Ralph Hopton and Sir Bevil Grenville were successful against the Parliamentarians, but by 1646, the tide had turned and Hopton surrendered to Parliament at Tresillian Bridge on 15th March.
Several battles took place in the Cornish border area, but it is not possible to ascertain how they affected the Sandercock families of Tremaine and Warbstow. It is very likely that some were called to join the Cornish Militia and fight for King Charles I against the Parliamentarians.
1648 saw a wet summer in Cornwall, cattle died and there was a poor harvest. This was followed in by a severe winter with a famine taking hold.
King Charles I was executed in 1649 and England entered the time of the English Commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell, the established church was overthrown, its services forbidden and replaced by Puritanism; church attendance became compulsory.
In 1658 Cromwell died and in 1660 monarchy was reinstated and Charles II was crowned. Strict Puritan morality was relaxed and the national church restored, but laws were harsh, and religious non-conformists and Catholics faced heavy discrimination.
When and where Jacob married Dorothy is not known, but it is likely to have been about 1660. This would have been about the time that the English Commonwealth ended and Charles II was crowned. Dorothy's maiden name is not known.
Jacob is recorded in the Hearth Tax of 1660 - 1664, as living at Tremaine and having one hearth. T. L. Stoate estimates that this indicated a house of two to four rooms. The cottage was probably made of cob with a thatched roof and compacted earth floors. The nearest male Sandercock was William who lived at Warbstow, about three miles away. Agnes and Rebecca Sandercock also lived at Warbstow in a house that had two hearths. This house formerly had Stephen Sandercock at its head as the record stated 'Stephen Sandercocke 2 ex now Agnes and Rebecca Sandercock'. William of Warbstow was not mentioned in Stephen's will of 1661 or in the 1641 Protestations, it is possible that he was a brother to Jacob who also had money prior to Stephen's will; this is, of course, merely speculation.
Jacob's occupation is not known, but in all probability he was a farmer or husbandman, although, with two of his sons being cordwainers, there is a possibility that was his job as well.
Jacob would probably have started the day with a piece of coarse wheat bread and a little honey or cheese if he was fortunate. This would have been washed down with water or possibly ale. The main meal was usually at midday and in good times would have included some chicken, ham or pork. At the end of the day a meal might include oat cakes with jam, honey or cheese. He may have had a featherbed, but the poor usually slept on mattresses made of a coarse canvas stuffed with straw. Lice and ticks were common. Jacob would not have spoken the Cornish language; by the 1600s that had been pushed further west as far as Bodmin.
The road from Launceston to Camelford ran through Treneglos and, although it did not run through Warbstow and Tremaine, the villages could be accessed via side roads. Bodmin Moor was avoided by most travellers because of the dangers and those not acquainted with it preferred to go around it. Stage coach was the main means of travel between towns and this brought about the new 'profession' of highwayman; travelling was very dangerous. Jacob and Dorothy may have travelled to Launceston, about five miles, to attend market, but they would probably have walked.
1666 saw a good harvest and, although prices were low, Cornwall exported grain. By 1667, however, the Great Plague had reached as far as West Cornwall.
The first church record of Jacob and Dorothy as a couple was at the christening of their son, Jacob, at Tremaine church on 26th March 1675.
In 1685 James II, the last Catholic monarch, was crowned, but he was thought of as too pro-French and too pro-Catholic and in 1689, after the Glorious Revolution, William of Orange became William III and jointly ruled with his wife, Mary, who was James II's daughter. Both William and Mary were Protestants. It is not possible to tell if these changes of monarchy affected life in Tremaine.
The baptisms of Jacob and Dorothy's other children are not recorded; the only evidence for them is from a Probate record, following the death of Degory Sandercock, Jacob's and Dorothy's son, in 1699 and Dorothy's Will of 1701. (The name Degory is also evidence that Stephen may have been Jacob's father as Stephen mentions a son, Degory, in his will of 1662 and Jacob may have named a son after his brother). The children mentioned in Dorothy's Will were as follows Samuel, Dorothy, Robert and Benjamin and Sara. Jacob Jnr. was not mentioned.
Exactly when Jacob Sr. died is not clear but, it seems logical to assume that he died prior to 1699 as Dorothy is referred to as 'a widow' in the document dated 18th March 1699 referring to the death of her son, Digory.
In April of 1701, Dorothy made her will and signed it with a cross. (See relevant document) The Will was witnessed by Stephen Sandercock, who actually signed his name. It is possible; therefore, that Stephen may have been a brother or a cousin to Dorothy's husband, Jacob. From the name, Stephen, it seems likely that he was the son of Stephen Sandercock mentioned in the Hearth Tax for Warbstow.
William II died in 1702 and was succeeded by Queen Ann who reigned until her death in 1714. In 1708/9 there was a small pox epidemic in Cornwall.
Dorothy died in July 1711 at Tremaine. The inventory was taken by Robert, her son, on 17th July 1711 and the Will was granted Probate on 27th July 1711.
Children of Jacob and Dorothy
Digory was a cordwainer living in Tremaine. He obviously never married because; having died intestate in the early part of 1699, there was a family agreement regarding his property.
On 18th March 1699, Dorothy, now a widow, signed a document stating that the goods of her deceased son, Digory, should be given to her son, Robert. Dorothy did not sign the document, but marked it with a cross.
Where Digory's small chattle estate was is not known.
Probate was granted in 1700 and signed by Robert using an S as his signature. Details of Digory's estate can be seen on the relevant document.
Benjamine Sandercock(a1680- ) - Mentioned in Dorothy's will of 1701. [Maureen Adam's Line]
Robert Sandercock(1682- ) - Mentioned in Dorothy's will of 1701. [Sandercott Line]
Robert was also a cordwainer; he and Digory were perhaps working together prior to Digory's death.
Document Z16/2/15/21 dated 27 December 1714 in the reign of George I shows that Robert of Tremeane, cordwainer, and his wife, Mary, and son Robert held a 99 year lease on two closes of land called Mill Land, a close called Undertowne and the Great Meddow also a parcel of land called the town place in Fanston. The land was leased from Samuel Phillips of Poughill. Rent was 1 pound and heriot 1 pound. The consideration was the surrender of a former lease.
Document Z16/2/15/23, dated 26 March 1731 in the reign of George I reveals more about Robert Saundercock of Tremean, shoemaker. He took out a 99 year lease on four fields formerly in one called Lower Faunston on the north side of the highway from Canworthy Water to Warbstow borough, and a plot of ground on which a house formerly stood, and another plot formerly used as a herbgarden, both plots lying on the south side of the said fields, all formerly in the tenure of Thomas Northey, deceased.
The lease was for 99 years or the lives of Robert's sons Robert and Richard and his daughter, Elizabeth.
The rent was 13s 4d , a capon or 1s and a harvest day or 8d
The heriot was 1 pound
Consideration 3 pounds 0
(Many of Robert's descendents emigrated to Canada)
Dorothy married a man called May, his Christian name is not known.
After his death, a Dorothy May, widow, married William Congdon on 1st January 1711 at Treneglos. Dorothy died, intestate, in 1746 at Treneglos. Her goods were committed to Benjamin as next of kin.
Samuel probably died in 1764. The Will of Samuel Sandercock of Tremaine was administered in 1764 at Bodmin.
Sara was made Dorothy's executrix in 1701 and at that time was unmarried.
Jacob Jnr. is not mentioned in Dorothy's Will. There are two possible reasons for this. Firstly, he may have died. Secondly, he may have been the Jacob Sandercock who became a Rev. Jacob Sandercock of Tavistock. This person married a wealthy widow, Mrs. Sarah Pope on 28th October 1690 at Upton Helions, Devon consequently he would not need a small inheritance from his mother. The later does not seem very likely, as Jacob Jnr. would have only been fifteen at the time of his marriage, but, in favour of the idea, is the fact that information about the Reverend states that he came from a lowly Cornish family.
|The Normans invaded England 945 years ago (1,066 AD). William the Conqueror was victorious at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex. Hundreds of ships were utilized and an army of thousands conscripted from Brittany north to Flanders in Belgium. This was part of my ancestral homelands. According to Wikipedia, 'an estimated 8000 Normans and other continentals settled in England as a result of the conquest'. William's soldiers were rewarded with land, titles, and power, and French-Norman rule and culture were imposed across England and Wales. If my ancestor was part of one of the invading armies, there's a good chance he would have been free to wander off and explore the new countryside when the army was disbanded. He and his descendants would have had a couple hundred years to travel the British Isles before settling in southern England and specifically Devon & Cornwall.|
|Other mass movements of people around that time line were the Saxons. They came from Jutland, Northern Germany, Netherlands and Friesland, which was part of the homelands of my ancient ancestors. The Saxons began to flood into England around 1,610 years ago (410 AD) following the withdrawal of the Romans.|
|Raft or Boat|
|An expanse of low-lying tundra allowed migration from Europe to Britain across what is known as Doggerland. Early migrants wandered across the still-dry sea bed up until approximately 8,500 years ago when sea levels rose rapidly forming the English Channel. Many years later the first farmers reached Britain about 6,000 years ago on boats or rafts that had to accommodate cattle and sheep as well as people. Later immigrants crossed with plows and horses. Discoveries of Bronze Age shipwrecks by archaeologists reveal that traders were voyaging routinely across the wider parts of the English Channel as far as Ireland more than 3,000 years ago. (Britannica)|